Yes no matter how you look at anime it is a cartoon but anime is still different since it is actually considered to be a Japanese Cartoon... (because of their art) ...if that is how you like to say it.
V This is the past western cartoon style
(now sometimes America would copy Japan's art and make >anime< series but it would be in English)
^ This is Japanese Animation style
(it is popular because Japanese culture is literally anime and a lot of people like the Japanese art in the West... it is Anime)
Copy Paste: V
(Select this big black paragraph then paste it somewhere where you can see it)
1. A cartoon is an animated film or television program that features superheroes, animals, and child protagonists while anime is a type of cartoon which was developed and made in Japan.
2. Both use the projection of photographed drawings in a fast sequence to give the illusion of movement; while a cartoon is usually aimed at young children anime is aimed at an older audience and adults although children also watch it.
3. The storyline of an anime is more complex while that of a cartoon is simpler.
4. Both may be created by drawing scenes and characters by hand or through generating them from a computer. While cartoon programs enjoy great popularity, anime has surpassed it in later years.
5. Cartoons have existed since the Middle Ages in the form of drawings made in preparation for other works of art while anime was developed and gained popularity in the 1980s.
Or, the TL,DR (the too long, didn’t read version: the difference between cartoon and anime is mostly a matter of opinion and location. Most of us will agree that Pokemon and Sailor Moon cover both but other shows will fall under just one category.
Now lets talk about Pokemon(TV Show) and the reason why is because people say it is a cartoon and other say it is an anime, It is actually both considering the fact it is somewhat close to anime style but it is also a cartoon.
<I hope now you understand more on what I am trying to prove here>
anime is a loan word for "animation" and "cartoon" because it is just so similar yet it is different by the style.
Spongebob IS Cartoon
if it was to be anime then this is how it would be: https://youtu.be/4WCbjCyauLA